TEMPEST batteries have following construction features:
Positive plates are plate electrodes of which a grid frame of
lead-tin-calcium alloy holds porous
lead dioxide as the active material.
Negative plates are plate electrodes of which a grid frame of
lead-tin-calcium alloy holds spongy lead as the active material.
Diluted sulfuric acid is used as the medium for conducting ions in the
electrochemical reaction in the battery.
Separators, which retain electrolyte and prevent shorting between
positive and negative plates, adopt a non-woven fabric of fine glass
fibers that is chemically stable in the diluted sulfuric acid
electrolyte. Being highly porous, separators retain electrolyte for the
reaction of active materials in the plates.
Valve (One-Way Valve)
The valve is comprised of a one-way valve made of material such as
neoprene. When gas is generated in the battery under extreme overcharge
conditions due to erroneous charging, charger malfunctions or other
abnormalities, the vent valve opens to release excessive pressure in the
battery and maintain the gas pressure within specific range (7.1 to 43.6
kPa). During ordinary use of the battery, the vent valve is closed to
shut out outside air and prevent oxygen in the air from reacting with
the active material on the negative electrodes.
Positive and Negative Electrode Terminals
Positive and negative electrode terminals can be tab fastening type,
bolt fastening type, threaded post type, or lead wire type, depending on
the type of the battery. Sealing of the terminal is achieved by a
structure that secures long adhesive-embedded paths and by adoption of
strong epoxy adhesives.
Battery Case Materials
Materials of the body and cover of the battery case are ABS resins,
(UL Flammability Rating of 94V-0) unless otherwise specified.